Airplane Primary Flight Instruments

Flight Instruments and how to interpret and operate the flight instruments.

* Pitot-static systems

– Altimeter (shows the aircraft’s altitude above sea-level.)

– Airspeed indicator (shows the aircraft’s speed relative to the surrounding air.)

– Vertical speed indicator (rate of climb/descend indicator, feet per minute)

* Gyroscopic Systems

– Attitude Indicator (shows the aircraft’s relation to the horizon.)

– Heading Indicator (displays the aircraft’s heading in compass points.)

– Turn-and-Slip Indicator (indicates rotation about longitudinal axis, It includes an inclinometer that displays the A/C if It’s in coordinated flight, or in a slip or skid.)

* Navigational Systems (Flight Director Systems)

– Very-High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR)

– Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) Note: The magnetic compass is the simplest, primitive and sensitive instruments available in the aircraft by which the pilot determines the direction of flight.  It shows the aircraft’s heading relative to magnetic north.

Air Speed Indicator :
White arch (Full Flap Operating Speed Range from Vso to Vfe),
Green arch (Normal Operating Speed Range from Vsı to Vno),
Yellow arch (Caution Speed Range, Smooth Air Opataring Range from Vno to Vne)
1. Vso- Stall Speed with Flaps- Stuff Out (Landing Configuration Speed)
2. Vsı-Stall Speed – Stuff In (Spesific Configuration)
3. Vfe – Maximum Flap Extended Speed (Top of White Arch)

4. Vno- Maximum Structural Crusing Speed (Top of the Green Arch)
5. Red Line- Vne – Never Exceed

Attitude indicator (Artificial horizon)
6. Pointer-Index

7. Pitch Lines

8. Miniature Aircraft

9. Artificial Horizon

10. Adjustment Knob

11. Banking Scale
Turn Coordinator (Turn Direction & Rate Indormation)

12. Turn Needle
13. Rolling Scale

14. Inclinometer
15. 2-MIN :
A standard rate turn is defined as a 3° per second turn, which completes a 360° turn in 2 minutes

16. Heading Indicator Manual Setting Knob  (needs to adjust the HI every 10-15 Minutes )
17. Heading Indicator- Heading Bug (Manual Set)
18. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) Indicator Needle – shows rate of climb/descend, feet per minute.
19. Altimeter , Barometric Pressure twisting knob.

20. Altimeter Kollsman Window- (barometric pressure setting window).

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